These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain communication between subjects. Despite these and other significant advances with human subjects – , invasive methods in humans remain severely limited in their practical usefulness. A fourth subject acted as emitter of information using a BCI system based on motor imagery to select two kinds of states in EEG spectral power in the motor cortex.
Subjects went through a familiarization period in which we administered several TMS pulses to the chosen right occipital cortex site using various rotations of the coil, and identified the intensity of TMS pulses that optimally discriminated active from silent orientations.
In these experiments we demonstrated the feasibility of direct brain-to-brain communication in human subjects, with special care taken to ensure the non-participation of sensory or motor systems in the exchange of information.
The main differences of this work relative to previous brain-to brain research are a) the use of human emitter and receiver subjects, b) the use of fully non-invasive technology and c) the conscious nature of the communicated content.
We may use the term mind-to-mind transmission here as opposed to brain-to-brain, because both the origin and the destination of the communication involved the conscious activity of the subjects.