July 2014 part 1

How to 'smuggle' a drug pass the body's many natural defense mechanisms, and deliver an encapsulated drug to the target site of infection....
►http://1.usa.gov/1qMOXYB
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How to smuggle a drug pass the bodys many natural defense mechanisms, and deliver an encapsulated drug to the target site of infection....
►http://1.usa.gov/1qMOXYB

Radical Science News shared SpaceX's photo.

Auxiliary boosters...... <3
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Up close with the SuperDraco engines that will power Dragon’s revolutionary launch escape system on crewed flights. Each producing 16,000 pounds of thrust, the 8 engines together will allow Dragon t...

Auxiliary boosters......

"In a new study, scientists compared three-dimensional structures of ribosomes from a variety of species of varying biological complexity, including humans, yeast, bacteria and archaea. The researchers found distinct fingerprints in the ribosomes where new structures were added to the ribosomal surface without altering the pre-existing ribosomal core, which originated over 3 billion years ago before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. "
[Credit: Loren Williams/Georgia Institute of Technology.] -

►read article here: bit.ly/1jb4FvC

►See more info at: bit.ly/1jb4FvC

►PMC_NCBI Journal article: 1.usa.gov/1tj0sdV
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In a new study, scientists compared three-dimensional structures of ribosomes from a variety of species of varying biological complexity, including humans, yeast, bacteria and archaea. The researchers found distinct fingerprints in the ribosomes where new structures were added to the ribosomal surface without altering the pre-existing ribosomal core, which originated over 3 billion years ago before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of life. 
[Credit: Loren Williams/Georgia Institute of Technology.] - 

►read article here: http://bit.ly/1jb4FvC

►See more info at: http://bit.ly/1jb4FvC

►PMC_NCBI Journal article: http://1.usa.gov/1tj0sdV

"[A] nudibranch (tropical sea cousin of the slug) can eat a jellyfish and digest all of its parts besides the stingers, and then push them through its back to sting predators..." -- and look stunning at the same time!

Learn more ► sc.org/StunningSlugs
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[A] nudibranch (tropical sea cousin of the slug) can eat a jellyfish and digest all of its parts besides the stingers, and then push them through its back to sting predators... -- and look stunning at the same time!

 Learn more ► http://sc.org/StunningSlugs

A Gene for High-Altitude Living! The physiological ability of ethnic Tibetans to thrive at miles-high elevations, unaffected by oxygen levels that leave lowlanders gasping, appears to have originated with Denisovans, a close relative of Neanderthals.

►http://bit.ly/1mqiEge
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A Gene for High-Altitude Living! The physiological ability of ethnic Tibetans to thrive at miles-high elevations, unaffected by oxygen levels that leave lowlanders gasping, appears to have originated with Denisovans, a close relative of Neanderthals.

►http://bit.ly/1mqiEge

[Courtesy of WIRED]
"This wide-field view captures the spectacular celestial landscape around the central object Gum 15. Among many other objects the star cluster NGC 2671 is visible a little to the lower left of centre and at the lower right of the image some of the filaments forming part of the Vela Supernova Remnant can be seen. This view was created from images forming part of the Digitized Sky Survey 2....
►http://wrd.cm/1siKCf4
... See MoreSee Less

[Courtesy of WIRED]
This wide-field view captures the spectacular celestial landscape around the central object Gum 15. Among many other objects the star cluster NGC 2671 is visible a little to the lower left of centre and at the lower right of the image some of the filaments forming part of the Vela Supernova Remnant can be seen. This view was created from images forming part of the Digitized Sky Survey 2....
►http://wrd.cm/1siKCf4

*** This Week in Radical Science ****
Click on one of the following links, displayed on this graphic

►(1) Brain: bit.ly/1z1Iz3G

►(2) skeleton find: slate.me/1ohvIVg

►(3) bio-bots: bit.ly/1vpKkmB

►(4) bioprinting: bit.ly/VH0kWQ

►(5) force field: bit.ly/1n4ERB5

►(6) Extinction: bit.ly/1rsGgV2

More stories like these here: www.facebook.com/radicalsciencenews

CLICK *LIKE*

Carla Parsons Kostas Hatalis Felix Cheshire Thompson Jeremy Darko Rohit Mukherjee Codee Tricityent Cory D Howell Sherri Gandy Dion C. Brandt
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*** This Week in Radical Science ****
 Click on one of the following links, displayed on this graphic

►(1) Brain:  http://bit.ly/1z1Iz3G

►(2) skeleton find:  http://slate.me/1ohvIVg

►(3) bio-bots: http://bit.ly/1vpKkmB

►(4) bioprinting: http://bit.ly/VH0kWQ

►(5) force field: http://bit.ly/1n4ERB5

►(6) Extinction: http://bit.ly/1rsGgV2

More stories like these here: https://www.facebook.com/radicalsciencenews

CLICK *LIKE*

Carla Marie  Kostas Hatalis  Felix Cheshire Thompson Jeremy Jer-El Darko  Rohit Mukherjee  Codee Tricityent  Cory D Howell  Sherri Cartwright  Dion C. Brandt

Ekocycle Cube 3D Printer will use plastic bottles as one component in its filament cartridges: a single cartridge will hold the equivalent of three 20oz. bottles, making up 25 percent of its content....

►read more here: bit.ly/1jcBqce
... See MoreSee Less

Ekocycle Cube 3D Printer will use plastic bottles as one component in its filament cartridges: a single cartridge will hold the equivalent of three 20oz. bottles, making up 25 percent of its content....

►read more here: http://bit.ly/1jcBqce

"There may be billions of Jupiter-sized planets wandering the space between the stars, unbound by the gravity of a parent sun. In fact, there may be nearly twice as many of these free floating planets as there are stars themselves in our galaxy, and they may even outnumber planets orbiting stars!" [Phil Plait (2011, Discover Mag.)]

►read details here: bit.ly/1rCDwV7
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There may be billions of Jupiter-sized planets wandering the space between the stars, unbound by the gravity of a parent sun. In fact, there may be nearly twice as many of these free floating planets as there are stars themselves in our galaxy, and they may even outnumber planets orbiting stars! [Phil Plait (2011, Discover Mag.)]

►read details here: http://bit.ly/1rCDwV7

Higgs quest deepens into realm of 'New Physics'

►http://bit.ly/1zd98mv
www.expatica.com/ch/news/swiss-news/Higgs-quest-deepens-into-realm-of-New-Physics-_296360.html

Two years after making history by unearthing the Higgs boson, the particle that confers mass, physicists are broadening their probe into its identity, hoping this will also solve other great cosmic mysteries...
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Higgs quest deepens into realm of New Physics 

►http://bit.ly/1zd98mv
http://www.expatica.com/ch/news/swiss-news/Higgs-quest-deepens-into-realm-of-New-Physics-_296360.html

 Two years after making history by unearthing the Higgs boson, the particle that confers mass, physicists are broadening their probe into its identity, hoping this will also solve other great cosmic mysteries...

The Life of Johannes Kepler and his contributions to Astronomy and Physics (via Kepler's Laws) *****
►article here: bit.ly/1mQYIz6

============================

[Excert from Scientific American article]

"Four hundred years ago this year, two events marked what scientists and historians today regard as the birth of modern astronomy. The first of them, the beginning of Galileo's telescopic observations, has been immortalized by playwrights and authors and widely publicized as the cornerstone anniversary for the International Year of Astronomy. Through his looking glass, the Italian astronomer saw the mountains and valleys of the moon, the satellites of Jupiter, and sunspots—observations that would play a huge role in discrediting the prevailing, church-endorsed view of an Earth-centered cosmos.

The second event is not as well known, but is arguably equally important. It was the publication of Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova (The New Astronomy) in 1609, a treatise in which the German astronomer introduced the first two of his laws describing planetary motion.

The first law states that the planets travel in elliptical orbits around the sun and describes the sun's position as the focal point in that ellipse. The second law states that an imaginary line connecting a planet to the sun will sweep out a region of equal size in a given time period, wherever in the orbit that time period falls.

Kepler would later go on to introduce yet another law, this one relating the dimensions of an orbit to the time it takes to complete that orbit. He also made fundamental contributions to optics, working out how images are formed by pinhole cameras, a telescope and the human eye as well as developed the principles for corrective lenses for near- and farsightedness. He coined the terms "orbit" and "satellite" and explained how ocean tides are caused by the moon.

"He was an astronomer's astronomer," says Owen Gingerich, a professor emeritus of astronomy and science history at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

Kepler was born in the town of Weil der Stadt in modern-day Baden–Württemberg, Germany, in 1571. His parents were not very well off: His father was a mercenary and his mother a housewife who would later be accused of witchery. Kepler was introspective and sickly as a child but he excelled in mathematics. He decided to join the clergy and won a scholarship to the University of Tübingen, where he was first acquainted with the work of Polish astronomer Nicholaus Copernicus.

In 1609 the accepted view was that Earth was stationary at the center of the universe and the moon, sun and planets moved around it. The stars lay beyond, encircling Earth in a sphere. This view of the heavens had originated with the Greeks, and it was formalized as an astronomical system by Claudius Ptolemy in the second century A.D. Ptolemaic astronomy was not simple—to model the motion of the planets, it made use of a complicated system of circles and epicycles—but it had been accepted as truth for almost a millennium and a half.

In the middle of the 16th century Copernicus had put forward an alternate, heliocentric system in which the sun was the center of the universe, with Earth and the other planets encircling it. Copernicus's treatise on heliocentrism, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres), was published in 1543. Kepler discovered it as a student in Tübingen and was much taken by Copernicus's views.

But most people were not similarly enamored with the concept of a heliocentric universe. First of all, Copernicus's ideas were not widely disseminated, as they ran counter to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church (although 73 years would pass before De Revolutionibus was listed as a forbidden work by the Church). It was only in universities and their surroundings that they found a following. Secondly, even for those who heard of it, Copernicus's heliocentric astronomy was by some measures hardly more accurate than Ptolemaic astronomy.

The Great Martian Catastrophe
As Gingerich explains, the Ptolemaic system predicted positions of Mars approximately every 32 years that were in error by about 5 degrees in longitude for a short time. Copernicus's system wasn't much better: it was off by about 4 degrees longitudinally. Gingerich calls this "the great Martian catastrophe"—a problem that observers such as Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe knew about, but that Kepler would solve.

After Tübingen Kepler worked as a mathematics teacher in Graz (in modern-day Austria), where he continued his interest in astronomy. It was in Graz that he wrote the Mysterium Cosmographicum (The Cosmographic Mystery), published in 1596, in support of Copernicus. He sent copies of his book to leading astronomers, including Brahe—the greatest observational astronomer of the day. Brahe and Kepler started a correspondence in which they talked about Copernicanism and other astronomical issues. By then, Kepler had realized the need for raw data—observations that would help him understand the underlying laws of nature.

In 1600, as a consequence of the religious and political unrest during the Protestant Reformation, Kepler lost his job at Graz. He made his way to Prague, where Brahe was the court astronomer to Emperor Rudolph II. Prague was where Kepler would spend some of his most productive years. Brahe died suddenly in 1601, and Kepler succeeded him as court astronomer. In addition to his royal duties, Kepler tried to resolve the motion of Mars. He found that his initial model, which assumed that Mars revolved around the sun in a circular orbit, failed to match his predecessor's observations. He reluctantly altered the orbit and made it more egg-shaped.

"There is a myth that Kepler, fitting a curve through Tycho Brahe's records of Mars, discovered that planetary orbits are elliptical," Gingerich says. "The fact is that Tycho's observations showed that the orbit was not a circle, but the choice of an ellipse was largely theoretical."

It was one of those intellectual leaps that would change the course of science. Kepler found that not only did an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus explain the movement of Mars, but also of the other planets. In fact, as Gingerich points out, Kepler realized the momentous nature of his discovery. In the Astronomia Nova, the typeface suddenly becomes larger to account for the significance as Kepler explains the motion of Mars and puts forward his first two planetary laws. (The third would come later.)

But the underlying physical reason for the planetary motion eluded Kepler, who thought a sort of magnetism was responsible. That puzzle would have to wait for another revolutionary thinker, Isaac Newton, whose law of gravity appeared on the scientific stage and explained orbital behavior eight decades later. "

►read article here: bit.ly/1mQYIz6
... See MoreSee Less

The Life of Johannes Kepler and his contributions to Astronomy and Physics (via Keplers Laws) *****
►article here: http://bit.ly/1mQYIz6

============================

[Excert from Scientific American article]

Four hundred years ago this year, two events marked what scientists and historians today regard as the birth of modern astronomy. The first of them, the beginning of Galileos telescopic observations, has been immortalized by playwrights and authors and widely publicized as the cornerstone anniversary for the International Year of Astronomy. Through his looking glass, the Italian astronomer saw the mountains and valleys of the moon, the satellites of Jupiter, and sunspots—observations that would play a huge role in discrediting the prevailing, church-endorsed view of an Earth-centered cosmos.

The second event is not as well known, but is arguably equally important. It was the publication of Johannes Keplers Astronomia Nova (The New Astronomy) in 1609, a treatise in which the German astronomer introduced the first two of his laws describing planetary motion.

 The first law states that the planets travel in elliptical orbits around the sun and describes the suns position as the focal point in that ellipse. The second law states that an imaginary line connecting a planet to the sun will sweep out a region of equal size in a given time period, wherever in the orbit that time period falls.

 Kepler would later go on to introduce yet another law, this one relating the dimensions of an orbit to the time it takes to complete that orbit. He also made fundamental contributions to optics, working out how images are formed by pinhole cameras, a telescope and the human eye as well as developed the principles for corrective lenses for near- and farsightedness. He coined the terms orbit and satellite and explained how ocean tides are caused by the moon.

 He was an astronomers astronomer, says Owen Gingerich, a professor emeritus of astronomy and science history at the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

 Kepler was born in the town of Weil der Stadt in modern-day Baden–Württemberg, Germany, in 1571. His parents were not very well off: His father was a mercenary and his mother a housewife who would later be accused of witchery. Kepler was introspective and sickly as a child but he excelled in mathematics. He decided to join the clergy and won a scholarship to the University of Tübingen, where he was first acquainted with the work of Polish astronomer Nicholaus Copernicus.

 In 1609 the accepted view was that Earth was stationary at the center of the universe and the moon, sun and planets moved around it. The stars lay beyond, encircling Earth in a sphere. This view of the heavens had originated with the Greeks, and it was formalized as an astronomical system by Claudius Ptolemy in the second century A.D. Ptolemaic astronomy was not simple—to model the motion of the planets, it made use of a complicated system of circles and epicycles—but it had been accepted as truth for almost a millennium and a half.

 In the middle of the 16th century Copernicus had put forward an alternate, heliocentric system in which the sun was the center of the universe, with Earth and the other planets encircling it. Copernicuss treatise on heliocentrism, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres), was published in 1543. Kepler discovered it as a student in Tübingen and was much taken by Copernicuss views.

 But most people were not similarly enamored with the concept of a heliocentric universe. First of all, Copernicuss ideas were not widely disseminated, as they ran counter to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church (although 73 years would pass before De Revolutionibus was listed as a forbidden work by the Church). It was only in universities and their surroundings that they found a following. Secondly, even for those who heard of it, Copernicuss heliocentric astronomy was by some measures hardly more accurate than Ptolemaic astronomy.

The Great Martian Catastrophe
 As Gingerich explains, the Ptolemaic system predicted positions of Mars approximately every 32 years that were in error by about 5 degrees in longitude for a short time. Copernicuss system wasnt much better: it was off by about 4 degrees longitudinally. Gingerich calls this the great Martian catastrophe—a problem that observers such as Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe knew about, but that Kepler would solve.

 After Tübingen Kepler worked as a mathematics teacher in Graz (in modern-day Austria), where he continued his interest in astronomy. It was in Graz that he wrote the Mysterium Cosmographicum (The Cosmographic Mystery), published in 1596, in support of Copernicus. He sent copies of his book to leading astronomers, including Brahe—the greatest observational astronomer of the day. Brahe and Kepler started a correspondence in which they talked about Copernicanism and other astronomical issues. By then, Kepler had realized the need for raw data—observations that would help him understand the underlying laws of nature.

 In 1600, as a consequence of the religious and political unrest during the Protestant Reformation, Kepler lost his job at Graz. He made his way to Prague, where Brahe was the court astronomer to Emperor Rudolph II. Prague was where Kepler would spend some of his most productive years. Brahe died suddenly in 1601, and Kepler succeeded him as court astronomer. In addition to his royal duties, Kepler tried to resolve the motion of Mars. He found that his initial model, which assumed that Mars revolved around the sun in a circular orbit, failed to match his predecessors observations. He reluctantly altered the orbit and made it more egg-shaped.

 There is a myth that Kepler, fitting a curve through Tycho Brahes records of Mars, discovered that planetary orbits are elliptical, Gingerich says. The fact is that Tychos observations showed that the orbit was not a circle, but the choice of an ellipse was largely theoretical.

 It was one of those intellectual leaps that would change the course of science. Kepler found that not only did an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus explain the movement of Mars, but also of the other planets. In fact, as Gingerich points out, Kepler realized the momentous nature of his discovery. In the Astronomia Nova, the typeface suddenly becomes larger to account for the significance as Kepler explains the motion of Mars and puts forward his first two planetary laws. (The third would come later.)

 But the underlying physical reason for the planetary motion eluded Kepler, who thought a sort of magnetism was responsible. That puzzle would have to wait for another revolutionary thinker, Isaac Newton, whose law of gravity appeared on the scientific stage and explained orbital behavior eight decades later. 

►read article here: http://bit.ly/1mQYIz6

The possibility of Gliese 581 d, being a habitable planet that ACTUALLY exist is now non-existent....new studies suggest that the previous reported sighting of an 'Earth-Like' exoplanet, in the form of Gliese 581 d, could be a faulty reading in the astronomical data....its parent star, being only 20 light years away from our own sun.....[Nick]

►read more on this development here: bit.ly/1jQinPD
... See MoreSee Less

The possibility of Gliese 581 d, being a habitable planet that ACTUALLY exist is now non-existent....new studies suggest that the previous reported sighting of an Earth-Like exoplanet, in the form of Gliese 581 d, could be a faulty reading in the astronomical data....its parent star, being only 20 light years away from our own sun.....[Nick]

►read more on this development here: http://bit.ly/1jQinPD

More H2O evidence for Mars...

In accordance to recent topological data pertaining to Mar's surface, studies of its terrain gives proof that large bodies of water once flowed throughout the Martian landscape...this is indicated by peculiar impressions seen along certain regions, which convey a long history of riverbeds, streams, lakes and even oceans....Now, recent photos from MRO's HiRISE camera seems to have unveiled a startling new revelation that can further solidify the prospect of the existence of water on Mars...Most notably, the notion that there exists frozen underground ocean beds, perhaps retaining small microbes. If so, the theory that primitive microbial life actually does exist on Mars is undoubtedly true...Furthermore, it could also point to the conclusion, from a historical perspective, that life on Earth was, in fact, seeded by Mars during the formation of the Solar System, billions of years ago......[Nick and Christopher S. Jannette]

►http://bit.ly/DiscoveryNews162

►http://bit.ly/1obNnMm
... See MoreSee Less

More H2O evidence for Mars...

In accordance to recent topological data pertaining to Mars surface, studies of its terrain gives proof that large bodies of water once flowed throughout the Martian landscape...this is indicated by peculiar impressions seen along certain regions, which convey a long history of riverbeds, streams, lakes and even oceans....Now, recent photos from MROs HiRISE camera seems to have unveiled a startling new revelation that can further solidify the prospect of the existence of water on Mars...Most notably, the notion that there exists frozen underground ocean beds, perhaps retaining small microbes.  If so, the theory that primitive microbial life actually does exist on Mars is undoubtedly true...Furthermore, it could also point to the conclusion, from a historical perspective, that life on Earth was, in fact, seeded by Mars during the formation of the Solar System, billions of years ago......[Nick and Christopher S. Jannette]

►http://bit.ly/DiscoveryNews162

►http://bit.ly/1obNnMm

Bacteria live in the waters above coral-dominated reefs, such as this one in the Pacific Ocean’s Line Islands. But if algae and seaweed take over a reef, the mix of microbes changes and may include bacteria that can damage coral: ow.ly/yFaXX

Credit: JENNIFER SMITH
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Bacteria live in the waters above coral-dominated reefs, such as this one in the Pacific Ocean’s Line Islands. But if algae and seaweed take over a reef, the mix of microbes changes and may include bacteria that can damage coral: http://ow.ly/yFaXX

 Credit: JENNIFER SMITH

Mission milestone! NASA's Cassini Mission to Saturn celebrates a decade of exploring the planet, its rings and moons.

go.nasa.gov/VAnC0L #Cassini10
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Mission milestone! NASAs Cassini Mission to Saturn celebrates a decade of exploring the planet, its rings and moons. 

http://go.nasa.gov/VAnC0L #Cassini10

This story could very well compliment Pilot-Wave Theory experiment conducted by Yves Couder. In essence it describes the theoretical research explored by Stefano Liberati and Luca Maccione of Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich...In it, they propose the idea that Einstein's General Relativity - Space-time surface does in fact garner similar physical properties of superfluids, fluids that defy the pull of gravity, traversing through space with no resistance.....Pilot-Wave proposal also pulls in the idea that quantum particles are under the 'force' of 'superfluid' space-time itself, as relative (analogously) to a droplet of solution cascading along a fluid-body (via surface-tension)....

Here, I'm posting both articles side-by-side: both in Nature and Scientific American online publication....

►(Nature): bit.ly/1kavhrt
►(Scientific): bit.ly/1iRlVq2
... See MoreSee Less

This story could very well compliment Pilot-Wave Theory experiment conducted by Yves Couder. In essence it describes the theoretical research explored by Stefano Liberati and Luca Maccione of Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich...In it, they propose the idea that Einsteins General Relativity - Space-time surface does in fact garner similar physical properties of superfluids, fluids that defy the pull of gravity, traversing through space with no resistance.....Pilot-Wave proposal also pulls in the idea that quantum particles are under the force of superfluid space-time itself, as relative (analogously) to a droplet of solution cascading along a fluid-body (via surface-tension)....

Here, Im posting both articles side-by-side: both in Nature and Scientific American online publication....

►(Nature): http://bit.ly/1kavhrt
►(Scientific): http://bit.ly/1iRlVq2

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